How does Vitamin E help the body?

How does Vitamin E help the body?

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an essential mineral required for the human body to function properly. It is vital in maintaining healthy skin and eyes. It is also a large contributing factor to the immune system as it helps the body fight infection. Vitamin E is consumed through eating a balanced diet, however a person struggling to consume enough Vitamin E on a daily basis can take supplements.

Benefits of Vitamin E


Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It helps fight against free-radicals that develop in the body and therefore helps prevent or delay chronic illnesses. By protecting cells from oxidation it prolongs the life of cells and makes them more healthy. 


It is also known for its skincare and nourishment properties. Research suggests that a person that applies moisturiser or skincare products on a regular basis will be more protected from UV exposure, have generally younger-looking skin and assists the body in repairing damaged skin from burns and scars. This is due to its cell restoration ability.


Due to its lipid-replenishing ability, Vitamin E will slow down the ageing process of the skin. This reduces wrinkles and lines that come with ageing. It is common for skincare and beauty products to advertise the fact that they are high in Vitamin E.

Nail health

A person with high levels of Vitamin E will have healthier nails. This helps nails look healthier, reducing the possibility of cracking or appearing yellow. As well as reducing the risk of peeling.


A person undergoing chemotherapy may suffer from radiation-induced toxicities. Supplementing with Vitamin E or increasing intake of Vitamin E reduces the risk of damage that can be done through anticancer therapies. Vitamin E also slows down and in some cases stops types of cell damage, this type of damage leads to some cancers.

Deficiency and Recommendation

Eating a balanced diet can provide adequate levels of Vitamin E. Foods such as nuts, seeds, leafy green vegetables and many cereal products all contain ample levels of Vitamin E. Therefore it is uncommon for a person to be deficient in this nutrient. A person suffering from a deficiency is likely to suffer from nerve and muscle damage, resulting in stiffness of movement and feeling weak. Due to its large contribution to the immune system, another sign of a Vitamin E deficiency may be a weak immune system that is not able to combat infections efficiently

A male requires a recommended 4mg a day and a female 3mg a day. A person still struggling to consume this recommended amount can meet these required levels through regular supplementation.


How can I naturally burn more fat?

How can I naturally burn more fat?

In order to burn fat, a person will need to be in a calorie deficit. This is where a person is burning more energy than they are consuming. The body will not be able to get all the required energy from food stores and it will then burn the body’s fat stores to aid with the energy demand. Over a long period of time, this will cause a person to lose weight. There are a number of ways a person can burn fat naturally. These are shown below:

Burning fat naturally


A person eating a well-balanced diet and expending more energy than they are consuming will burn fat. If an individual eats high volume low-calorie foods, this will cause the body to feel fuller for longer and the body will naturally begin to target fat stores to help the body function through the day. This only works over a sustained period, a diet that targets fat loss, while still being considered healthy can be one in a caloric deficit of 500cals. A person eating a diet putting them in a dangerous deficit (higher than 500) will likely feel rundown throughout the day, unwell and in extreme cases can cause serious health implications. 


By performing daily exercise over a long period of time a person can burn more fat, like all fat burning methods, a person will need to make sure they are in a calorie deficit otherwise the body will not target fat stores. All exercise requires energy and therefore can burn fat, there are however particular methods of exercise that are more suited to burning fat. The best and widely considered method of training to burn fat is Endurance/cardiovascular training. Endurance/cardiovascular training over a long period of time at a low intensity is effective at gaining a calorie deficit. This means the body is active for much longer periods of time whether as weight training and other methods will have rest periods.


Diet and Exercise are the most obvious methods of naturally burning fat. However, Sleep is also a very important factor to consider when looking to burn more fat. By having the daily recommended 6-8 hours sleep a night, this will have a great impact on a person’s hormones. Sleep deprivation impacts the body’s ability to regulate its appetite. This is due to not producing the chemical Leptin. Leptin suppresses appetite and hunger spikes throughout the day, being able to consume calories at a gradual rate throughout the day, while not overeating will help a person stay in a calorie deficit and target fat stores

Burning fat

There are many different ways to burn fat, this page lists 3 ways that it can be done naturally. It is not uncommon for people to use supplements that can aid the body in burning fat stores. Before looking to burn fat it is important a person looks at medical guidance. Burning fat will mean the body systems are working hard and will likely require energy output, by combining a diet that is too far in a calorie deficit with strenuous exercise will put a person under a dangerous level of stress which will be harmful. Therefore research and consideration are always encouraged to anyone looking to burn fat either naturally or through supplements and medication.



A Guide to Superfoods

What Are Superfoods?

A food referred to as a ‘Superfood’ is one that offers large nutritional benefits while being low in calories. Typically this will be a food that is also high in antioxidants and providing vital vitamins and minerals that largely benefit the body and help with everyday bodily functions. Nutritionally rich foods contain Antioxidants. 

Antioxidants help the body neutralise free radicals that occur in the body as a result of energy production and the body breaking down food. Free radicals damage the body’s cells, leading to illness and disease. Over time, this can also cause aging.

Although what one person classes as a Superfood may differ from another, due to factors such as allergies and dietary requirements, by incorporating food with high vitamins and minerals it is possible to lead a healthier lifestyle through regular consumption of this type of food. 

Types Of Superfoods


Berries such as Blueberries, Raspberries and Cranberries are dense in amino acids and a range of antioxidants. High in Vitamin C & E, Berries help prevent a number of different cancers and against heart disease. A person that consumes Berries on a daily basis is likely to have lower cholesterol and blood pressure.


Eating Soy has clear health benefits to the cardiovascular system and helps reduce blood pressure. Research suggests that regular consumption of Soy helps prevent age-related memory loss and the impact aging has on bones. Soy is low in saturated fats while high in vitamins, minerals and polyunsaturated fats (healthy fats).

Leafy Greens

Undoubtedly, vegetables are an important food source in a balanced diet. Leafy Green vegetables are all high in Vitamin A, B, C, E and K. These are high in fibre and therefore good for the digestive systems, helping for regular excretion as well as preventing constipation. This type of food also helps fight against obesity and is good for an individual’s mental health and wellbeing.

Dark Chocolate

A small amount of Dark Chocolate consumed in moderation has great health benefits due to being high in flavonoids. This helps reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer. It is important to factor in that chocolate bought in a shop will typically be high in sugar and other unhealthy ingredients, therefore it should be consumed in moderation and in its most pure form, where possible.

Incorporating Superfoods in the diet

While eating Superfoods has clear benefits to a person, it is important an individual looking to lead a healthy lifestyle is mindful of eating a balanced diet that suits their lifestyle. For example, a person with allergies or an intolerance to a certain food group may not be benefited by eating a certain food even if it is considered a superfood with clear health benefits, it would be more beneficial for that person to find a healthy food, they enjoy eating on a regular basis, have access to and are able to incorporate into their diet.


How Can You Burn More Fat?

How Can You Burn More Fat?

The human body stores fat in order to keep the body insulated and in order to store energy. How much fat your body stores can depend on a number of factors, such as your age, genes, hormones and lifestyle. 

Excess fat can cause health implications such as heart attacks, high blood pressure, cancer and mental health issues such as depression. Therefore it is not uncommon for people to want to explore a number of ways to burn fat in order to lead a more active and healthy lifestyle. In order to burn fat, the body must be consuming fewer calories than it is burning (Calorie Deficit). Entering into a deficit for a sustained period of time will cause the body to use fat stores for energy.

Calorie Deficit

Recommended calorie deficits can depend on a number of factors, such as a person’s lifestyle and age. It is important that when dieting for fat loss and looking to enter into a calorie deficit for a long period of time, that a person does not go into a too low deficit, this will likely cause the person to feel rundown and unwell. 

A general starting point that is considered healthy and sustainable is a deficit of 500 calories per day. A tool that is often used for this is a calorie calculator, this is used to see what the maintenance calories for an individual are in order to function day to day as well as calories required for a surplus or deficit, depending on what is required. 

The different methods to achieve this deficit and therefore burn fat are shown below.

Fat Burning Methods


A more active lifestyle and exercising on a regular basis will require more energy. Therefore, the more calories you burn which will in turn directly target the body’s fat stores. All forms of exercise require energy and therefore the consumption of calories. However more strenuous exercise, typically endurance and high-intensity exercises are likely to require more energy expenditure and therefore will be better suited for burning fat.


Eating a healthy, more balanced diet will assist with burning fat. This is best achieved by making sure that calories consumed are from foods that are less calorie dense and are considered to be high volume, therefore helping the body to feel full. Foods that are good sources of fibre, such as vegetables, fruits and whole grains all contain are all less calorie-dense.


Dietary supplements re oftenly combined with regular exercise and a balanced diet to acheive optimal results. Fat burners will target the body systems in a number of ways, they can help reduce a person’s appetite. This means that they will want to consume less food whilst increasing the body’s person’s metabolism. This results in a potential greater calorie deficit. When choosing to begin supplementing with fat burners, it is recoemmended to seek medical guidance and be aware of the recommended dosage. Over exceeding the dosage can result in discomforts such as feeling uneasy throughout the day, a faster heart rate or diarrhoea.


How does Vitamin C help the body?

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a vital vitamin the body needs in order to function on a day to day basis. The body requires Vitamin C to aid the Immune System, healing injuries and maintaining bone health. 


Reduced risk of serious illness 

Vitamin C is an antioxidant. Antioxidants help the body fight against free radicals that occur in the body. By reducing the amount of free radicals in the body, this will stop them from gathering and will help stop the body from becoming infected or contracting a disease. 

Prevents against Iron deficiency 

Iron is essential in an individual’s diet. It assists in the transportation of oxygen around the body. Without Iron, the red blood cells will struggle to support the body and vital organs with nutrients needed to function. Ample levels of Vitamin C in the body assist in absorbing iron from food sources. A person lacking in Iron risks developing anaemia, although only a temporary condition, this causes the person to be tired and weak and therefore unable to function properly on a day to day basis.

Regulating blood pressure

Blood pressure is the force of blood flow against the walls of blood vessels in the body. A person with high blood pressure over a long period of time runs an increased risk of cardiac arrest and other serious heart diseases that can be fatal. Research indicate an ample amount of Vitamin C on a daily basis helps relax the blood vessels and strain on the circulatory system in everyday life and while exercising. It is important for an individual looking to manage blood pressure that a reliance solely on Vitamin C is not advisable, an individual should also consider all elements of their diet and participation in exercise.

Shortens recovery time from illness 

Vitamin C plays a key role in the formation of white blood cells, these are the body’s defence mechanisms in fighting infections. A person that has contracted an illness may look to supplement with Vitamin C. They can simply increase the consumption of foods high in Vitamin C in order to shorten recovery time. 

Protects your memory

Oxidative stress and inflammation on the brain and nervous system over a prolonged period can promote the early onset of dementia and Alzheimer’s, causing the decline in memory, language and thinking skills of an individual. Studies have shown that low levels of Vitamin C are linked to cognitive impairment. A high intake of Vitamin C can help preserve this ability as a person ages.

Vitamin C in the diet

To maintain Vitamin C levels, an indidual is able to do this by eating a balanced diet. Oranges, Broccoli and Spinach can provide high levels of Vitamin C. It is not possible to store Vitamin C in the body over a long period of time because it is a soluble vitamin. As a result, it can only be maintained it through regular consumption. The daily intake advised for an individual depends on age, condition and body composition. It is important an individual looks at their own dietary requirements and seeks medical guidance for Vitamin C when looking to lead a healthy lifestyle. An individual who takes Vitamin C supplements should make sure the recommended daily intake is not exceeded as this can be harmful.


A Guide to The B Vitamins

How do the B Vitamins help the body?

The body requires vitamins and minerals in order to function to an optimum level throughout the day. These are vital for the body systems. B vitamins are split into smaller subcategories due to their composition, different B vitamins contain different nutrients. These subcategories and shown below.

Thiamin (vitamin B1)

This is essential in order to help the body convert carbohydrates into energy. By having the recommended amount of B1 on a daily basis it helps greatly with muscle function and therefore the heart. As well as helping with the function of the brain and the heart. Eggs, Fruit and Liver are all high in B1. The recommended daily intake of B1 in the diet for a male is 1mg and 0.8mg for a female

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

This is vital in the breakdown of macronutrients in the digestive system, then into energy and into the bloodstream. It also plays an important role in the maintenance of the skin and eyes. Eggs, Oats and Mushrooms all contain B2. It is important to be aware that the overexposure of these foods to sunlight will deplete the B2 contained in the food, therefore storage should always be done out of sunlight. The recommended daily intake of B2 in the diet for a male is 1.3mg for a male and 1.1mg for a female.

Niacin (vitamin B3)

Similarly to B1 & B2, vitamin B3 aids the body systems in everyday functions. Everybody system in the body will require some level of B3 in order to operate efficiently and effectively. In particular the nervous system and maintenance of the skin. B3 is found in Eggs, Milk and Fish. The recommended daily intake for B3 is 16.5mg for a male and 13.2mg for females.

Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5)

This vitamin is essential for making red blood cells and converting food that is consumed on a daily basis into energy. It aids in the transportation of oxygen to the organs and is found in Chicken, Beef, Eggs and Broccoli. It is often used for many treatments such as acne, conjunctivitis and diabetic nerve pain. The recommended daily intake for both a male and female is 5mg.

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 helps the body maintain energy levels by helping to breakdown and store Protein and Carbohydrates that are consumed on a daily basis. It aids in the formation of Hemoglobin found in red blood cells that are then transported around the body to vital organs and the muscles. It is found in Eggs, Milk, Potatoes and Milk. The recommended daily intake for a male is 1.4mg for a male and 1.2mg for a female. 

Biotin (vitamin B7)

Biotin is an essential vitamin for the body. It is only needed in small amount and is found in a varying range of foods, albeit in small amounts. Therefore it is easily consumed in a person’s daily diet. It aids mainly in the breakdown of fat in the body. The body is able to make B7 in the bowel therefore it is very uncommon for a person to be deficient in this vitamin. The recommended daily intake for both a male and female is 0.03mcg. 

Folate and Folic Acid

This vitamin greatly assets in the production of red blood cells that transport oxygen around the body to the vital organs and the muscles. Folic acid is found in foods while folate, is the manmade form of the vitamin, that is engineered in a lab. Folate helps with a range of treatments including the prevention of certain types of cancer. Broccoli, Chickpeas and Brussel Sprouts. The recommended daily intake of Folic acid is 200mcg a day for an adult. 

Vitamin B12

Similarly to Folic acid, B12 plays a vital role in the creation of red blood cells and supplying oxygen to the vital organs and muscles. It also aids the body in the conversion of food into energy to help the body function on a daily basis. B12 also allowed the body to use Folic acid stored in the body. A B12 deficiency will lead to a person being anaemic. Without sufficient red blood cells, a person will feel weary and weak throughout the day. Eggs, Cheese and Meat all contain B12. The recommended daily intake of B12 for a person on a daily basis is 1.5mg for an adult. 

B Vitamins in the Diet

A person eating a balanced diet can obtain all these vitamins through the consumption of food. However, a person struggling to met the recommended daily intake of these vitamins can consume supplements. It is important that the recommended dosage is not exceeded as the overconsumption can lead to health implications.


Protein Sources for Vegan Diet

Best Sources Of Protein For Vegan Diet

Protein is essential for muscle growth and the repair of body tissue. Consuming complete proteins is vital for body function. A complete protein has all 9 essential amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and therefore your body requires all essential amino acids to function correctly. Individuals who follow veganism may struggle to consume all 9 amino acids as vegetables typically do not contain them. Food derived from meat typically contain a complete protein profile. 

However there are multiple sources for which you can get your protein hit and still follow the Vegan Diet and if a wide variety of the examples are consumed, it will mean that your body will receive the enough protein for optimal body function. These examples are the following:


Quinoa is a seed that comes in a variety of colours. This is a complete Protein, therefore contains all 9 amino acids that are essential in the diet and for muscle growth and repair. Quinoa holds the status as a superfood, this results in a high demand and can be bought in most UK supermarkets. There are 4g of Protein per 100g of Quinoa, it is more nutrient-dense than Oatmeal and Rice and therefore a much healthier option.


Derived from Soybean, Tofu has been a regular choice in vegetable protein for many years. Popular cooking methods are stir-fry and baking. Soybeans are used to make Soy Milk which is the most popular Alt-Milk in the market due to Soy’s high protein to low calorie ratio. It is high in amino acids as well as calcium and iron. There is 8gs of Protein per 100g of Tofu. When the Soybeans are processed, Tofu is commonly pressed into blocks. It is a low-calorie food source and often eaten by vegans. 


As a complex carbohydrate, they are a popular choice for most individual’s diet. Complex carbohydrates release consistent energy throughout the day and are a preferred choice for breakfast. Oats are high in double and insoluble fibre and therefore help lower Cholesterol. They are also high in Protein, Per 100g, there is 10g of Protein. 


Vegetables are some of the most nutrient-dense food sources a person can possibly eat and are also typically high in Protein. Examples include Spinach, Broccoli, Asparagus and Sweetcorn, they all contain high Protein as well as other essential vitamins and minerals. These are all also low-calorie options and source of protein when compared with food such as Steak, therefore should not be neglected in a balanced diet


This food source contains 19.5g of Protein per 100g and is a great source of vegan-friendly Protein. Chickpeas greatly assist the digestive system in function and reduce the risk of many diseases due to being high in antioxidants. They are high in Iron, Zinc and a range of B vitamins. 

Vegan Protein in the diet

A person looking to lead a Vegan-friendly diet and eating the recommended daily intake of Protein should always make sure they vary food sources. This is in order to get the range of nutrients contained in the above foods as well as many other foods that are high in Protein. Recommended Protein levels will vary due to a person’s age, body composition and possible health conditions. Therefore it is important a person seeks medical guidance and pays attention to information on the packaging of foods if unsure if they are meeting required Protein intake on a daily basis. 



A Guide to CLA

What is CLA and how does it help burn fat?

CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid which is largely found in meat and dairy. CLA has a number of health benefits and is considered to be a necessity to a balanced diet. People who follow the Vegan Diet will struggle to obtain CLA through natural diet, therefore, will need to use supplements to ensure they receive the recommended amount.

Contemporary research may also support the belief that CLA can assist in preventing cancer, however research for this is still in its infancy. Although most CLA supplements are marketed for their anticancer properties, athletes and participants in bodybuilding in more recent years have been taking the supplement due to its fat-burning ability.

It is also possible to purchase CLA in supplement. A person supplementing with CLA will likely be doing this due to its ability to maintain weight loss, retain mass and regulate diabetes. 

CLA for fat loss

Increased levels of CLA stimulates the Human Body to burn fats. The Human body will therefore increase the enzymes and proteins responsible in the breakdown in fat.

Speeds up metabolism

Research shows that CLA will increase the speed of metabolism. By having a fast metabolism, the body will burn more calories while resting and during exercise. Meaning that a person with more CLA will be generally able to eat more without putting on weight. 

Mobilise stored fat

Providing the Human Body has an increased levels of CLA, this will encourage the breakdown triglycerides which is the main compound in fat cell. A person with high triglycerides will likely also have thicker artery walls and therefore have increased risk of serious illness such as heart disease. It is important to factor in that illnesses such as these also need to be combated with limited sugary snacks and refined carbohydrates. Dietary CLA or CLA supplements will not prevent this on their own. 

Fat to muscle ratio

Due to reducing the ability for fat cells to become larger while assisting with muscle growth and endurance. A person participating in strength training on a regular basis will, therefore, be able to work out harder and faster for longer. This will contribute to a stronger body system that requires more energy to support bigger muscle groups. Bodies with a larger muscles will result in an increase of Basal Metabolic Rate. 

CLA in the diet

A recommended baseline for an adult looking to supplement with CLA on a regular basis is 3.2-6.4 grams per day. Research shows that this can help contribute to weight loss. However, as with all supplementation for weight loss, this only works when combined with a healthy diet and caloric deficit. 


A Guide to Vitamin A

How does Vitamin A help the body?

Vitamin A is an essential nutrient which is consumed in the diet through food. It is vital in helping the body fight infections and many other health benefits, these are shown below.

Benefits of Vitamin A

Eye health

Vitamin A helps to aid a person’s basic vision, a person with an ample amount of Vitamin A is able to see more easily by dim light. A person deficient in Vitamin A will likely lack sufficient rhodopsin. This is found in the retina of the eye, a person lacking in this will struggle to see when light is dim. Due to this, Vitamin A also negates the impact of age-related damage on eyesight.

Skin health 

A deficiency in Vitamin A makes a person more likely to develop skin disorders. This is largely due to Vitamin A aiding in the body’s ability to remove dead skin cells. Without being able to do this, pores become blocked and skin will become itchy and irritated. In more serious cases, a person can develop acne, impacting a person’s self-esteem and even leading to mental health disorders. Due to this, it is not uncommon for medications to treat poor skin health to be rich in Vitamin A. 

Lower risk of Cancer

Although research for this is still in its infancy, studies carried out in recent years on Vitamin A indicate due to it aiding in the development of cells in the body, regular consumption of Vitamin A on a daily basis show a person has a decreased risk of cancers such as lung and bladder cancer. 

Immune system 

Vitamin A helps the body fight against infections and disease and therefore strengthens the immune system, this due to aiding in the development of white blood cells that fight infections and diseases. A person suffering from a deficiency is more likely to develop serious illnesses and take longer to recover.

Bone health

Vitamin A is one of the main nutrients needed for the body to maintain healthy bones. Research indicates that a person with low levels of Vitamin A is much more likely to develop fractures and bone breaks. An adolescent still developing will require Vitamin A in order to grow and develop stronger bones. It is important to consider that other nutrients such as Calcium and Vitamin D are also important contributors to the overall condition of a person’s bones, therefore sufficient levels of all of these are required for overall bone health.

Vitamins A in the diet

The recommended daily intake of Vitamin A is 900mcg per day for a man and 700mcg per day for a woman. This is easily achievable through eating a balanced diet rich in foods such as dairy products, eggs and some oily fish. A person struggling to meet these daily amounts over a long period can consider taking supplements but should also seek medical guidance and advice while considering the recommendation of the supplement.



Why Should I Stretch Before Training?

Why is stretching important?

Stretching is a form of physical exercise in which a muscle or muscle group is moderately flexed. Typically before, during or after exercise. This allows muscle tissue to lengthen which holds many benefits to an individual.

Why should you stretch?

Injury Prevention – Stretching helps to prevent possible muscle damage such as strains and sprains. By warming a muscle up and elongating it through performing holds over time this will allow muscle fibres to release stress and improve elasticity, more strenuous exercises can then be carried out with a much-lessened risk of injury.

Performance – Participants in exercise may choose to perform stretches in order to improve performance. When exercising, muscles will contract and relax, by stretching before exercise circulation of blood to the active muscles is improved, increasing the supply of nutrients which aids with recovery and the ability to perform more vigorously for longer. 

Range of motion – Closely linked to performance, stretching before exercise helps muscles become more pliable. The muscle can then achieve a greater range of motion aiding in effective sporting performance.

Cooldown – After performing the exercise, it is important that the body is given adequate time to recover. Stretching can be used in order to help bring the heart rate down gradually, this is often used for participants comfort in relieving aches and pains as well as previously mentioned prevention of injury while getting blood back into a muscle that has been put under stress.

Types of Stretching

Static stretching – This is a form of stretching where a participant holds a position for typical 30 – 60 seconds, allowing muscles to become elasticised, research suggests that the application of this method of stretching and doing it for long periods of time can hinder the muscle’s performance before exercise as it is being put under a period of strain

Dynamic Stretching – Usually performed for no longer than a few seconds, this allows the muscle to increase in length without suffering fatigue. Performed incorrectly or too rigorously, this can cause injury. 

Ballistic Stretching – Sometimes considered a controversial method of stretching, this form of stretching uses quick and dynamic movements in order to warm up muscles and can put strain on muscles before they are warmed up, causing possible injury.

Stretching and Wellbeing

Not only does research highlight the importance of stretching for sports performers but also for an individual in everyday life. Everyday activities such as sitting at a desk for long periods of time can contribute to tight hamstrings due to not being active. This will then inhibit walking. Injured or damaged muscles can then not support tendons and ligaments and can cause injury.

 Muscles can hold a lot of tension after exercise when beginning the day or at the end of a day where a person has been physically active. By performing stretches, this will help a person feel less stressed which helps mental wellbeing

Doctors or physios may also give patients a daily stretching routine to perform as a result of medical conditions. This can help lessen the impact of the condition or simply aid the individual to live life without any discomfort. 



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